የኤርትራ ልዩ ኮማንዶ ጦር ወደ ኢትዮጵያ ድንበር ተጠጋ

The news in Amharic from Ethiopia are stopped as a result of the total repression of the Free Press by the TPLF/EPRDF regime.Image

Re: ለወርቅ ሰው

Postby ወርቅሰው1 » Sun Oct 09, 2005 10:14 pm

ውድ አንባቢያን!

ይህን የጹሑን መልስ ከአዳማ ያየሁት እሁድ ስለነበረ ከወንድም ላሊበላ4 ቤት ሳለሁ ነው:: ስሙ ደግሞ በሣይበር ገጽላይ እንደነበረ አላየሁም በዚያ ላይ እኔ ጻፍኩበት ጉዳዩ ያብቻ መሆኑን ለማስገንዘብ ወደድኩ::

*ቀይ ባህር ዳር ድንበራችን ነው*

የኢትዮጵያ ጠላቶች መውደቂያቸው ደርሷል:: ከአዳማ ጌኛው ጀምሮ:: አንድም አልኖረም ኢትዮጵያን የሚቃወም ሁሉ:: ዚያድ ባሬን አስበው ሌሎቹንም ዱቼ ሙሶሎኒ በገዛ አገሩ እግሩ ወደ ላይ አንገቱ ወደታች ተዘቅዝቆ ነበር ያረፈው::

አርግልኝ ያልኩህን አረክልኝ ወይ
እራሱን ወደታች እግሩን ወደላይ::

እንደዚያ ነው ኢትዮጵያ ጠላቶቿን የምትፈርድባቸው:: ቢረዳህ አሁንም እስካሁን ድረስ አርፈው የተኙትን አንበሶች አትቀስቅሳቸው ነገር ግን ብዙ ጉራ የምታበዛና የምታበዙ ተሆነ ዕየተዘቀዘቅህ ከነ ነፍስህ ነው አነበሳዎቿ የሚሰቅሉህ ቢገባህ::

ማንነው የናት ኢትዮጵያን እግርና ሆድ የሚቆርጠው አንተ ሠላቢ የመሰልክ አነጋገረ ጥፉ ሰው::

ሰውን በህይወቴ ማስቀየም አልሻም አገሬን ግን ክፉ ስለተመኘህላት ያንን ቃል እንድናገር አድርጎኛል:: ታዛቢ ይመስክር!

ወርቅሰው1
(ሰሐሊን)






ላሊበላ4 wrote:ባለጌን ታሳደገው የገደለው ይጸድቃል ይባላል:: ጌታው አዳማ!

እኔ ኦሮሞ ደቡብ ብዬ ያነሳሁበት ጹሑፍ የለኝም:: ነገር ግን ያንተ አይነት ጀዝባ የሚያወራውን ዓይነት ወሬ መለሰ ዜናዊ የሚለውን ያጭበርባሪ ኃሣብ ነው:: አንተ ህወኃት ወይም ወያኔ ታልሆነም ሻቢያ ነህ እንጂ አዳማን በስም ነው የምታውቃት::

ስለኦሮሞ ደግሞ አንተም ሆንክ ሌሎቹ ሊነግሩኝ አይቻላቸውም:: ለምን ብትለኝ ከስምህ ከፍ ብሎ ከሚገኙት ከፈረሰኞቹ ታውቃቸዋለህ እነኛ ጀግኖቹ አገር ነው ቤተሰቤ ግምቢቹዎቹ ቢገባህ ሃሬ ወላቃስ አንተ የኔ ጥርስ ግጥም ያለ እስካሁን ህመም የሚባል የማይሰማኝ ነው::

አጣብቂኝ ውስጥ ገብተኃል ይመስለኛል:: ወያኔ እንደዚህ በግርግር ተሌለ ያጭበርብረህ የዘረፍከው ገንዘብ ከየት እንደመጣኸው የምትጤየቅበት ጊዜ ይመጣል:: ያንተንም አድራሻና በታንጀቱ ላይ በምትጥላቸው ጣቶጭ ስምህን ጭምር ገልጾልኛል:: ሃሬ የመሰለ አስተሳሰብህን ይዘህ የኢትዮጵያ አምላክ ሳታስበው መኪና በላይ ላይ ያስኪድብህ::

ወርቅሰው1
ከ(ሰሐሊን)
[

quote="አዳማ"]የቆጡን .... ይባል የለ! ገና አንገትህ ብቻ ሳይሆን እግርህና ሆድህ ተቆርጦ ብትንትንህ ታያያለህ አንት የነፍጥ ልጅ!! ጥርስ አልባ ጉረኛ!! ምላስ ብቻ ነህ ... ሊሞትልህ የምትፈልገው ግኑ ጭቁኑ የኦሮሞና የደቡብ ህዝብ ነው ... ለዚህ መድሀኒትህ ልታገኝ ነው::



ወርቅሰው1 wrote:ከፍተኛ ይቅርታ ትላንት በ7/10/2005 የላኳት መልክት ላይ መደረግ የነበረባትን በመዘንጋቴ ነው:: እሱም!
መለሰ ዜናዊ የተባለው የህወኃት መሪ በ1976 በጻፈው የኤርትራ ጥያቄ የቅኝ ግዛት ጥያቄ ነው ብሏል::

እንግዲያውስ ከታች እንደገጽኩት የአሰብ ራስ ገዝ ወሰን መርሳ ፋጡማን አልፎ ነው:: ዳህላክን ጨምሮ በምሥራቅ ራስ ደሚራና (ኦቦኪ) ናቸው የሚያዋስኑት በወዲያ ደግሞ ባብኤል መንደብና ጎልፍ ኦፍ አደን ነው::

በቅኝ ግዛት ግዜ የነበረን ድንበር መከበር አለበት የሚለው በካይሮ በ1964 እንደ ፈረንጅ አቆጣጠር ያፍሪቃ መሪዎች ያደረጉት ስምምነት አለ:: በዚያም ምክንያት ብቻ ሣይሆን አፋሮች የኢትዮጵያ ጠረፍ ጠባቂዋ ህዝብ ናቸው:: ልክ እንደ ወልቃይት ጠገዴዎች ሰሜን አርማጭሆ ካለፖሊስ በስተቀር በዚያ በኩል ጦር ኖሯት አታውቅም አገራቺን ህዝቡ ዳር ድንበሩ ከየት እስከዬት መሆኑን ጥሩ አድርጎ የሚያቅ ስለሆነ ራሱ ይጠብቃት ነበር:: የዛሬውን አያድርገውና::

የቅኝ ገዥ ከነበረች አገራቺን ታዲያ አሰብ በምንም አይነት ከኤርትራ ጠቅላይ ግዛት ስር ተስተዳድሮ አያውቅም:: ጽንፈኞች ሊያወሩ ይቺላሉ ወውነታው ግን የወሎ ክፍለ ኃገር ነው የአሰብ አውራጃ አስተዳዳሪ የነበረው:: እሱም ኤርታራ ከናት አገሯ ከደባለቀችበት ጊዜ ጀምሮ:: የጣሊያንን ወረራ በከፍተኛ ደረጃ ከተቃወሙት ውስጥ:ታላቁ የኢትዮጵያ ልጅና እንዲሁም የቀይ ባህር ባላባቱና ሱልጣን ያሲን ይገኙበታል ከታሪክ ተመልከቱት::

ይህን ለማለት ነው:: ኢትዮጵያ ያቦታዋ መሆኑ በብዙ ማስረጃዎች የሚደገፍ ነው:: ያንንም ድጋፍ ዛሬ አልናገርም መናገርም የለብኝም:: ይልቅስ በዲፕሎማሲያዊ መንገድ ተጠቅመው ያንንስፍራና ሕዝብ ወደ አገሩ መመለስ ይኖርባቸዋል ችግሮች ሁሉ ይወገዱ ከተባለ::

*ቀይ ባህር ዳር ድነብራቺን ነው*

ወርቅሰው1
ከ(ሰሐሊን)





ወርቅሰው1 wrote:መርሐዊ!
"ጅሉማ" አንተ ነህ ቆመው ሊሟገቱ የማይቺሉትን ሙታን ዕሬሳን አቅርበህልን ተመልከቱ የምትለን::
ጅል ሰው የሚያቀበው መሆኑን ማንም ያውቀዋል::

ስማ እንጂ ኢሳኢያስ አፈ ወርቂና የሻቢያው ቀንደኛ መሪ መለሰ ዜናዊ የተስማሙበት ነው እንዴ ነጻህነት የምትለኝ::

ጅልነትህ እዚያ ላይ ነው:: አትናደድ ቀስ ብዬ ነበር የነገርኩህ ግን ሰደብከኝ ያም ሆነ ይህ ኢትዮጵያ በቅድሚያ በኢትዮጵያዊያን ስትመራ ሁሉም በጊዜው ይታሰብበታል::

አገራቺን እንደምትለው ሳይሆን እናንተና አንተንም የመሳሰሉ ጽንፈኞች ያረብ ራቢጣ አባሎች ናቺሁ::

በመጀመሪያ አገር መሰረትን ስትሉ እንኳንስ ረጅም ድንበር ቀርቶ የቤት አጥር ሲታጠር ከጎረቤትህ ጋራ ሆነ ያንተ ከዚያ ወዲያ የኔም ከዚህ ወዲያ ነው ተብሎ ይሰመራል::

ለመሆኑ አግሬ የምትለኝ:: በቅኝ ግዛት ጊዜ ወሰኑ የነበረውን ነው አገሬ የሚለው ይላል ካይሮ ላይ በ1964 የነበረው ያፍሪቃ ህብረት ፊርማና ሠነዶች::

አሰብ ራስ ገዝ ማለትም ከምጽዋ 60 ኪሎሜትር ጀምሮ ዳሕላክን አጠቃሎ በወሎ ክፍለ ኃገር ይስተዳደር ነበረ:: እሱም የኢሳይያስ አጎት ደጃዝማች ሰሎሞን አብርሃ ነበሩ እንደራሴ ሆነው ያስተዳድሩት የነበሩት::

ከሞኞች ደጅ ሞፈር ይቆረጣል ይባላል:: አሁንም እያልክ ያለኸው ያንን ምሣሌ የሚያመላክት ነው:: ህጋዊ ከሆነ ነጻነት ሰጪው የኢትዮጵያ ህዝብ መክሮበት እንጂ የማንም ወሮ በላ ያለህግ አገሪቷን ወሮ የያዙት አንደኛው የሕወኃት ክንፍና መአከላዊ ኮሚቴዎች እስካሁን እነ ኃጎስና ወዲ የማነ ጃማይካና መለሰ ስዩምና ሲም ኦንን የመሳሰሉ አወናባጅ ፍሬከርሲኪዎቻቺሁን አስቀምጣቺሁ አጋዚ ማለት ቀይህ እምባባ የተባለው የሻቢያ አርሚ ነው::

በተባበሩት መንግሥታት ተጣልተናል ብላቺሁ ወደ 1 ቢሊዮን ዶላር አስወጥታቺኌል:: ነገር ግን መለስና ኢሣይያስ ዘወትር በፋክስና ኢማይል ሞባይል ተሌፎንና ቀጥተኛ ስልክ እያወሩ ነው::

አሳዛኞች ኢትዮጵያዊያን ኃይላቸውን አደራጅተው ጦርነት ከናንተ ጋር መግጠም ሳይሆን 9 ቦታ መከፋፈል ነው:: የኩናማን ጥያቄ ባጭሩ ልትመልሱት አትቺሉም:: ከዚያም የባሪያን:: ከዚያም የብሌነዪን:: ከዚያም የጀበሪቲዎቹን:: ቀጥሎም እስከ ደቀ መሐረ ድረስ ከሰገነይቲ አስንስቶ መንደፍራና አኮለጉዛዮቺን:: እነዚያን ሁሉ ምን ልትላቸው ነው::

ታሳዝናለህ አገርህን አንተነትህ የማታውቅ ኤርትራ ኤርትራዊ ትለኛለህ ብለህም መጻፍህ ያሳዝነኛል:: ያቺ አገር የኢትዮጵያ ግዛትነቷ በታሪክ መመልከት ያለመቻልህ::

ጣሊያንን ገትረው እዚያው ይዋጉ የነበሩ ደጃዝማቾቺና ራሶችን አስባቸው በመንፈስህ:: ታዲያ እያወራቺሁ ያለው በአጠቃላይ ውሸት ታሪክን ነው:: ያህዝብ ኢትዮጵያዊ እንጂ ከሌላ ያልወጣ መሆኑን አስብ::

መንደፍራ ከ500 ዓመት በፊት ኤርትራ ባዶ ስለነበረች ህዝቡ ከጎንደር ከበለሣ ሄደው ሰፈሩባት:: አገዎች ገዥዎች ስለብነበሩ ንጉሡ አገር እንዲያቀኑ ላካቸው::

የቀሩት አውራጃዎች በሙሉ ከትግራይ ጠቅላይ ግዛትና እንዲያውም አገራቸው ከዚያ እንደሚጀምር ሁሉም ያውቃሉ ይረዳሉ:: ታዲያ ቓንቓው መልክና አስተሳሰብ ባህልና ምንነት ከትግራይ ህዝብ ተለይታቺሁ እንደማትታወቁ ልታገናዝበው ይገባል:: እናታቺሁን እየወጋቺሁ መሆኑን እንድታውቅ::

ምንም ፉከራ ልታመጣልኝ አልፈልግም:: ለማጥፋት እኔም ተነስቼ ሰውንም ሆነ አገርን ባልሆነ መንገድ አድፍጬ ለጠላት ተገዝቼ ብዙ ብዙ ላደርግ እቺላለሁ ተከታይ እስካገኘሁ ድረስ::

ሻቢያ ወያኔ ህወኃትም ያንን የመሰለ ነው ያደረጉት ተራ ወንብድና ነው ያደረጉት:: ያማ ባይሆን እስካሁን ይህ ሁሉ ጦርነትና ለጦርነቶችም መዘጋጀት ወጣቱን ወደ ሳዋ በመውሰድ ያለፍላጎቱ ቢያንስ ወደ 500 ሺህ የወጣት ሰራዊ ማዘጋጀት ለማነው? ስህተተኞችና ጅሎች መሆናቺሁ ያሳዝነኛል::

ልክ አንተ እንደምታስበው እኔ ደግሞ ስለ ኢትዮጵያ አገሬ ነው የማስብላት የምቆጭላት ማንኛውንም ለማድረግ ዘወትር የምዘጋጅላት:: እንዲያ ነው::

አትመለስልኝ ለምን ዴሞክራሲዊ በሆነ መስመር ልንነጋገር ይገባናል እንጂ እንደ ህጻናት እርስበርሳቺን ልንሰደብ አይገባንም:: በጨዋ መልክ እንወያይ:: እስከፈለግህ ድረስ::

እኔ የማምነው ይህ ሁሉ ቱሻቺሁ ይፈታል ነው:: ከዚያ በኌላ ሁሉም በሰላም በሚያስቡ ሰዎች ይስተካከላል ነው:: የኢትዮጵያን መሣሪያ ኤርትራ ባንኮቺ ውስጥ የተቀመጡት ገንዘቦችና እንዲሁም የየመስሪያ ቤቱ ሥራ ማስካሂጃ ባጄቶችን እንዳሉ ወሰዳቺሁት ኢትዮጵያ ግን አልደከመቺም ይባስ ብሎ ወንድማቺሁ ህወኃት ዘርፏት ከ5 ቢሊዮን ዶላር የበለጠ በውጪ ባንክ በኮድ እንዳስቀመጡ ይሰማል::

የህወኃት ገብንዘብ ነው ይለናል መለሰ ለቢቢሲ ሲናገር ፈልገህ ስማው ያኔ:: ወንድሜ የምነግርህ በግለሰብ ደረጃ እንዳልሆነ እንድታውቅልኝ:: ልታስብ የሚገባህ እዚያም ቤት እሳት አለ የሚለውን ነው::

ይበቃ ይመስለኛል

*ቀይ ባህር ዳር ድንበራቺን ነው*

አመሰግናለሁ

ወርቅሰው1
ከ(ሰሐሊን)


መራሀዊ wrote:ለወርቅሰው....ከሀቅ ለመራቅ አትፈትን ሀቅን እያጣራህ ስታልፍ ነው ችግርህ የሚፈታው ከወገኖችህ ጎን ያልቆምክ በወሬ ብቻ ዘመን ነው የሚቆጥረው የኤርትራ ነጻነት አንተ ተቀበልከው አልተቀበልከው በህጋዊ በኢንተርናሽናል ህግ እና በህዝብ ድምጽ እንዲሁም በኤርትራዊ ደም የተደረገ እና ያለቀለት ጉዳይ ነው::

ለላው ያቀረብኩስ ሰል ከሀቅ የረቀ አይደለም በጊዘው የነበረ ነው አሁን ጊን እንደአንተ አይነቱ ጅል ወገኑን ረስቶ በአፉ ብቻ እዚህ ወሬ ያበዛል..
ነበሩ ነበሩ ....ብቻ ከማለት አሁንም ወገኔ የሚል ኢትዮጵያዊ የወገኑን አጽም የትም ዘርግቶ አይደለም አሁን ጦርነት ከጀመርን ባድመ ሳይሆን ሌላ እያለ ከሚፎክር መጀመርያ የአደራ ተቀባይ ለወገኑ ደራሽ ይሁን...ቤት ይቁጠረው....ስንቱ ኢትዮጵያዊ ነው ሳር በቅሎበት ያለው????????
[/quote]
ወርቅሰው1
ዋና አለቃ
ዋና አለቃ
 
Posts: 4075
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ለላህታታሙ ---- አለክስ

Postby መራሀዊ » Tue Oct 11, 2005 1:56 pm

አንተ ደንቆሮ ጊዜ እኮ አለፈብህ ላንታ እና እንዳንተ ለመሳሰሉ እንዲሁም ለአለቃህ ባለድርብ ምላሱ ቦጥቧጭ ........ዘመን ተቀይራ አለቆችህ የሚይዙትን እና የሚጨብጡትን አተው ልብሳቸውን ነው አውልቀው ጥለው መህእድ የቀራጨው.....በግሉኮስ ሀይል እስከአሁን እየተነፈሳችሁ ትገኛላችሁ....ወያኔ.....ግሉኮስ እና የግሉኮስ ብስኩት ከአሜሪካ እና ከ እንግሊስዝ የተቋረጠ እለት...ከነግብስብሶቹ አጋዚ መንጋ ሰራዊት እየትተሯሯጥክ መግባት ነው የቀራችሁ....ባድመ እያልክ በህልምህ መከጀል ቀረ ይ ሁሉ የፎከርከው ፉከራ በባዶ ሜዳ ከንቱ....እዚህ የምትፎክረው የባድመ ጉዳይ....ሳትጨርስ አስመራ እያልክ ታላምጣለህ ...እዚህ ያለህበትን መድረክ ጎንበስ ብለህ እየው እድሜ ልክህን እንደአሞራ አታንጋጥጥ....
አይ አለክሲኖ....

ሻአቢያ ጥርነት ቢከፍት ባይከፍት ወያኔ እኮ በድን ሆኗል...ምን አለፋው በታክቲክ እንደፈላ ውሀ እያንተከተከህ እያየህ...ዝም ብለህ አፍህን ዘግተህ ወደ ደብረዘይት ጦር ሰፈር ነው የሚባለው ወይንስ የወያኔ ምሽግ..? እኔ ግን የወያኔ የፖለቲካ ጥገኝነት መጠየቂያ ካምፕ ወይንም የወያኔ እድሜ በቃኝ እስር ቤት ነው የምለው ለማንኛውም ወደዛ ኑሮህን ለማመቻቸት ጎራ በል....ከአሜሪካ ስንዴና ዘይት ይላክልሀል...ለድንቢጢቱ መለስም :lol: እዚህ ባለፉት ጊዜያት መለስ ከነቤተሰቦቹ ወደ ደብረዘይት
ሰፈራ ካምፕ መመላለስ አበዛ...ምነው ዘይትና ስንዴ ገና አልተራገፈም??????????



የራሷ አሮባት የሰው ታማስላለች ኢሎም ሰባት
ኣነ ካብ ኩሉ ነገረ -ስራሕ ጸበብቲ ኤትራዊያን ብጣዕሚ ኢዩ ዝገርመኒ ::ኣብ ጥራይ መዓኮሩ ዝዕበ እንተሎ ኤርትራዊን ኤርትራዊያንን ጥራሕ ኢዮም ::ጉራ 30 ዓመታት ኣመል ኮይኑኩም ክሳብ ሎሚ ዘለናሉ ዘበን ሒዝኩምዎ ዘሊቕኩም

አንተ ተደናገርክ መሰለኝ......ምን እንደምትል ገብቶሀል?? ተብታባ እስቲ የ30 ዓመት ትግል እኮ ሀይለስላሴን ,መንግስቱን, እንዲሁም አኡን ወያኔን እያሳደደ ያለ ኃይል ነው :lol:

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30 ዓመት...

መርሀዊ...
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ለወርቅሰው

Postby መራሀዊ » Tue Oct 11, 2005 2:33 pm

ወርቅሰው.....ያንተ ለቅሶ ሁልጊዜ ተደጋጋሚ በጣም ከብዙሀኑ የኢትዮጵያ አስተሳሰብ የተለየ....መንግስቱ በአሁኑ ሰአት እንደአንተ አይነት አስተሳሰብ የለውም እንኳን አንት....ነበር,ናቸው እያልክ እንደአፈ ታሪክ ወሬ ታበዛለህ

ምናልባት በደርግ ጊዜያት ከሚማረኩት ምርከኞች አንዱ አንተ ሳትሆን አትቀርም የመጀመርያ የደርግ ሰራዊቶች አብዛኛዎቹ ወደ ሱዳን ከዚያም ወደ ተለያየ የተሻገሩ ናቸው...እና አንተም ፍቅር ልብህ ውስጥ የሰረጸ ይመስል ""ቀይ ባህር ዳር ድንበራችን ነው እያልክ ""ትፎክራለህ ማን ሊሰማህ ነበሩ ናቸው እያልክ ለቅሶ ታበዛለህ ማን አብሮህ ሊያንጎረጉር... አይደለም የውጪ የውስጣዊ የሀገርህን እና የወገንህን ጉዳይ ልትፈታ የማትችል በሩቁ ሆነህ በናፍቆት የምትቃጠል አንተ ድሮ የምታውቃት ኢትዮጵያ መስላህ እንዳይመስልህ....የማንም ---- የወገንህን ደም በውስኪ ብርጭቆ ነው የሚጠጣው ያለው ስለዚህ ከወቅታዊ ጉዳይ ጋር አስተሳሰብህ ቢሄድ ይሻላል...

ለማንኛውም ትንሽ ይህችን ጽሁፍ እንድታነባት ...

History of Eritrea

Eritrea is one of the newest and most promising nations in Africa -- and containts remnants of some of its oldest civilizations. One of the earliest known references to Eritrea is from Aeschylus (Fragment 67) in which he refers to the "Mare Erythreum" (Red Sea) as "the lake that is the jewel of Ethiopia." Eritrea recently fought and won one of the longest wars in the world. After thirty years of bitter strugle, Eritrea achieve total independence and the right to self-determination. The Eritrean people acheived their goals in 1991 in a stunning defeat of the occupying Ethiopian forces which also helped liberate Ethiopia from the Soviet-backed Dergue (Menguistu Hailemariam) regime.

Early History

Between 1000 and 400 BC, a semitic group of people known as the Sabeans crossed the Red Sea into the region known as present Eritrea, and intermingled with the Hamitic inhabitants who had migrated from the northern Sudan. The region was then controlled by various foreign invaders such as the Axumite kingdom, the Funji Sultans of Sudan, the Egyptians, the Portugese and the Turks. Each of these foreign occupiers had a distinct impact on the development of present day Eritrea as a nation and in the formation of an Eritrean identity.

Colonisation; ITALY

None, however, was quite as significant as the Italian colonial period from 1880 - 1941. This was the era during which Eritrea emerged as a distinct society and territory. In the late 1880's Italy purchased the port of Assab from a commercial company that was administering it. Encouraged by the British, who were then attempting to contain France's colonial asspirations in the Horn, Italy proceeded to colonize the region. Italy moved to transform Eritrea, with its access to sea and agricultural potential, into a permanent colony. The king of Italy issued a decree that formally established Eritrea on 1 January 1890. Eritrea was defined as a Nation State, and a colony of Italy. Italian immigration began at the turn of the century. At the twilight of of the Italian colonial era (late 1930s) about 70,000 Italians had settled in Eritrea. Italian agricultural policy for Eritrea was designed to primarily benefit the settlement population and to sustain Italian exports to Europe and East Africa. The development of a market- based economy required that the Italians upgrade Eritrea's infrastructure. The extensive communications and transportation facilities that were established were among the best in Africa during this era. The Italians built railway lines between Asmara and Keren and Agordat. The port of Massawa was linked by rail to the interior. All-weather roads were constructed through the mountains of Eritrea and the lowlands. Two modern airports were built. An export-based industrial sector was created and Eritrea forged new links with the international economy. National Identity and, gradually, a national consciousness developed during this era. People from diverse economic, ethnic and religious backgrounds were structurally linked within the colonial borders. Their experiences differed sharply from those of their neighbors in Ethiopia. Ethiopia remained dominated by a feudal economic system managed by imperial rule. By the 1940s, Eritrea had evolved a substantial working class as well as a distinct urban- based intelligentsia. Neverthless Italian colonial rule was not benign. The Italian administration reflected the views and aspirations of a fascist government. Eritrea's people were seen as little more than a source of cheap labour to fuel the aims of Rome. Eritreans played only subsidiary roles in their country's economic and political development.


Colonialism; GREAT BRITAIN

With the defeat of Italy in 1941, the great powers (France, Soviet Union, UK and the US) decided that Great Britain would then govern Eritrea as a protectorate. The British Military Administration (BMA) ruled Eritrea as "Occupied Enemy Territory." The Eritrean people viewed the British as a welcome respite from Italian fascist rule. Nonethless, Eritrean society was by then experiencing the first stirrings of the desire for self determination. Peasant resistance had increased during the final years of Italian governance. The economic hardships suffered because of the dominance of foreign agendas began to make Eritreans conscious of the need to chart their own economic future. Until this period, Ethiopian involvement in Eritrea was quite limited. From the turn of the century through the onset of British military rule, Eritrea and Ethiopia moved on separate economic and political tracks. Eritrea developed a colonial-based market economy while Ethiopia maintained feudalism. By the 1940's, however, Ethiopian designs on Eritrea clearly emerged. The newly-reinstated Emperor of Ethiopia began his effort to gain influence and control over Eritrea. Ethiopia employed three primary tactics to acheive its goal of increasing influence and domination. These were interference in the religious affairs of Eritrea, manipulation of political parties and organizations, and terrorism. The British responce to Ethiopia's increasingly interventionist stance was largely ineffectual. They were unable to counter the growing disruption generated from Addis Ababa.

UN Decides Eritrea's Fate

The end of World War II resulted in UN oversight of Eritrea. By this time the BMA was finding it difficult to govern Eritrea. Ethiopia was staking a claim through intervention and diplomatic efforts. The US, which had maintained a presence in British-administered Eritrea, was showing increasing interest in obtaining a strategic presence on the Red Sea coast. The discussions that were to define Eritrea's future for the coming forty years began in April 1949 in New York. Various proposals - partition, annexation and independence - were debated. According to the British, 75 percent of the population suported Independence. On 2 December 1950, the UN passed a resolution that formally federated Eritrea to Ethiopia. In September 1952, the agreement was put into practice and Ethiopians replaced the British. The international decision regarding the fate of Eritrea had little to do with the aspirations of the Eritrean people themselves.

Liberation Struggle: 1961-1991

Although there was organized resistance throughout the British Military Administration and federation with Ethiopia, the first act of armed resistance by Eritreans against Ethiopian rule was September 1, 1961. The event became a pretext for total annexation by Ethiopia on November 14, 1962. Scattered resistance groups formed links with pro-independence movements outside the country, and the first organized military front, the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) was formed. By 1965 the ELF had about 1,000 fighters in the field.

In an effort to deal with the cultural and geographic challenges of waging a national campaign for liberation, the ELF established semi-autonomous zones. This led eventually to "balkanization" of the resistance movement into Muslim and Christian factions, with some key defections over to the Ethiopian side. Following a concerted attack on the ELF by the Ethiopians, there were calls for unity within the liberation movement, matched by more defections and splinter movements. During this same period (late 1960s and early 1970s) Emperor Haile Selassie was also losing his grip on internal affairs throughout Ethiopia. Large numbers of Christian highlanders joined the ELF, and a second military force, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) was formed. By 1976 the ELF and EPLF had a combined force of 20,000, and were making signficant advances in controlling the rural and less-populated regions of the country.

The EPLF quickly became the more powerful of the two forces, and was more effective when meeting Ethiopian troops. In 1980, angered by an attack in which the ELF left their flanks exposed, the EPLF drove their rivals from the field, and faced the enemy alone for the remainder of the war.
Despite increased Soviet support for the Dergue (Menguistu Hailemariam) regime, amounting to more than $16 billion, the EPLF succeeded in meeting its better-equipped enemy head-on in a series of eight offenses, where the odds favored the Ethiopians by 10:1 in most cases. Using a strategy of strategic retreats and lightning counter-attacks, the EPLF was able to re-capture 90% of Eritreans from a demoralized Ethiopian army by 1990.

The infrastructure created for support of EPLF troops and their civilian charges was just as significant in bringing about eventual liberation as was the military skill and bravery of the outnumbered soldiers. The EPLF established networks of underground hospitals, factories, schools, and libraries for the benefit of the people in liberated zones. Literacy and public health campaigns significantly improved the daily lives of peasant farmers, despite the war being fought on all sides. The EPLF insituted innovative civil administration, legal and social codes that transformed the traditional and colonial structures that preceded them. Marriage, property and inheritance customs were re-vamped to provide equality for historically oppressed Eritrean women. More than 30% of the EPLF's combatants were women, and their contribution was too significant for the society to willingly turn its back, and return to the old ways.


The Birth of a Nation

The 24th of May 1993, brought in the dawn of a new era for the Eritrean people. Having won the right to define their own future, they voted for Independence in a referendum held from the 23rd-25th of April 1993. On the 27th of April 1993, the Independent Eritrean Referendum Commission, the United Nations Observer Mission for the Eritrean Referendum (UNOVER), the OAU, the Arab League, the Non - Aligned Movement, the National Citizens Monitoring Group and numerous individual observers were unanimous in their conclusion, that the referendum had been unequivocally free and fair. In the words of the then Provisional Government of Eritrea (PGE) Secretary General; Issaias Afwerki; the referendum was " a delightful and sacrosanct historical conclusion to the choice of the Eritrean people. And although it has been decided that formal independence will be declared on 24 May 1993, Eritrea is a soverign country as of today." (27 April 1993). The Independence of Eritrea and its territorial sovereignity was immediately recognised by the world.

ERITREA: CHARACTERISTICS

The people The people of Eritrea, are known as Eritreans. They are a resilient group of people who thrive on hope and a deep tradition of comradeship among each other. The fact that most of the population spent many years in Diaspora or on the war front, has helped in establishing a deep bond between them that trancends mere ethnic or religious divisions.

POPULATION: 3,467,087 (July 1993 est.)
GROWTH RATE: 3.46% (1993 est.)
ETHNIC GROUPS: Bilen, Nara, Afar, Tigre, Kunama, Hadareb, Saho, Rashaida, Tigrinya
RELIGIONS: Christianity, Islam, Animist

Geography Today; Eritrea occupies a strategic position along the worlds busiest shipping lanes and the Middl East oil fields, and is also an oasis of stability in the volaitaile regions of the Horn of Africa. Eritrea retained its entire coast line along the Red Sea, upon its independence on 27 April 1993; leaving Ethiopia landlocked.

LOCATION: Horn of Africa; bordered to the North and West by Sudan; South by Ethiopia; South-East by Djibouti and to the North -East by the Red Sea.

AREA SIZE: Total land area is 121,320 km sq. Eritrea is slightly larger than either England or Pennsylvania.

LAND BOUNDARIES: Total 1,630 km. Boundaries with neighbouring countries is 113 km with Djibouti; 912 km with Ethiopia and 605 km with the Sudan.

COAST LINE: Coast line by the Red Sea is 1,151 km; together with the Dahlack Archipelagos is 2,234 km.

MARITIME CLAIMS: Teritorial claims on the Red Sea; 12 nautical miles.

DATELINE: A POLITICAL HISTORY
1889- Eritrea defined as a Nation State/ colonised by Italy.
1941- World War II/ Italy defeated in Africa/ Eritrea is now governed by the British.
1952- Eritrea federated as an autonomous state with Ethiopia.
1961- The beginning of the Independence war by the ELF (the Eritrean Liberation Front).
1962- Ethiopia annexes Eritrea as it's 14th province.
1970- EPLF (Eritrean People's Liberation Front) formed.
1976-8 Liberation movements take control over most of the towns and countryside.
1991- Eritrea liberated from Ethiopia by the EPLF. Transitional govt. set up with Secretary - General of the EPLF, Issaias Afwerki as leader.
1993- UN sponsored referendum for Independence of Eritrea held on APRIL 23rd - 25th. 99% of the votes cast are pro Independence. On April 27th Eritrea becomes an Independent and recognised nation. MAY 24 is proclaimed National Day in Eritrea.

መርሀዊ
መራሀዊ
አዲስ
አዲስ
 
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Re: ለወርቅሰው

Postby ወርቅሰው1 » Tue Oct 11, 2005 4:32 pm

መርሀዊ!
ስለሰጠኸኝ መጠኑን የጠበቀና አክብሮት የተቀላቀለበትን "ሰበካህንም "ተረዳሁ::

ከባድ ፖለቲካኛ ነህ:: ወንድሜ ሆይ እርግጥ ነው:: ኤርትራን በደንብ የማውቃት አገሬ ነች:: አንተ ተወለድኩባት የምትለው አታውቃትም:: ውኃ ለሰው ልጅ አስፈላጊ ነው:: የት ምንጮች እንዳሉና እንደሚገኙ አውቃለሁ::

ኤርትራውስጥ በአልጌናና ናቅፋ መሐከል ታስታውስ እንደሆነ ሻቢያና ጀበኃ ጦርነት ላንዴና ለመጨረሻ ጊዜ ያደረጉበት ቦታ:: እዚያ የጋዝ ሽታው አያስኬድህም ሌሊትም አያስተኛህም እውነት ነው የምነግርህ ያንን ቦታ ይልቅስ በደንብ ይፈተሽ ለኤርትራ ኤኮኖሚ ይረዳል::

ወርቅ የት እንደሚገኝ ደግሞ አልነግርህም:: የጃፓን ካምፓኒ ሰርቶ ሻቢያ ያቃጠለው ቦታ ብቻ እንዳይደለ አስቡ::

እስከዚህ ለኤርትራም አስብላታለሁ በሚገባ ያንን የትጥቅ ትግል እንዳይኖር በሰላማዊ ድርድር ወንድሞቻቺን አብረውን እንዲኖሩና የውስጥ አስተዳደራቸውን ያልምንም ተጽ እኖ እንዲኖሩ ከሚመኙት ኢትዮጵያውያን ወገኖች ህ አንዱ ነኝ::

ታዲያ የናንተ የሻቢያ ጥፋት ምን መሰለህ ለፍታቺሁ ለፍታቺሁ ብዙ ከሄዳቺሁ በኌላ ድንባዣሙን መለሰ ዜናዊን ወደ አፋበት ወይም ናቅፋ ታልሆነም አልጌናና ቅጥልጥሎ ተራራ ድንጋዩ የሰማይ ስባሪ የሚመስለው ውስጥ ወስዳቺሁ ያጠመቃቺሁት ጽበል የአቡነ ፊሊጶስ ይሁን ወይስ የጋንጩሩ መሆኑን ሳታጣሩ የኤርትራ ጥያቄ የቅኝ ግዛት ጥያቄ ነው ብሎ መጽሐፍ ጽፎ በቃ ዋናው አምባሳደር ዘ ሻቢያ አድርጋቺሁት ለቃቺሁብን ይኸው ዛሬ ምን እያደረገ እንደሚገኝ ልብህ ይፈርደዋል::

ሻቢያ ሞኙ (ሰው አማኙ) ያንን ሁሉ እድል ከመስጠቱም አልፎ እንደገና መለሰ ድንበር ሣያካልላቺሁ እንኳን ሂዱ ብሏቺሁ ጉድ ሠራቺሁ እስካሁን ከዕድገታቺሁ ተጓደላቺሁ ወደድክም ጠላኸውም የህዝብ ልጆች በ2ቱም በኩል አለቁ:: ለምን?

መርሃዊ ጥቁር በጥቁር ቀርቶ በአለም ላይ የሚገኙ የሰው ልጆችን ሰላምና መልካም ኑሮ ይመኝላቸዋል በሚል ነው የጻፍኩልህ የልቤን:: በሚገባ ምንጊዜም ኢትዮጵያ በስፍርዋ ትኖራለች:: ነበረ አለቺም ለወደፊትም ትቀጥላላለች:: የሰው ልጅ ህይወት በንምድር ላይ እስካለ ድረስ::

መስማማት አለብን የመለሰ ዜናዊ ህወኃትና ወያኔ ገለመሌዎቻቸው ከነሰንኮፋቸው መሄድ አለባቸው ከዚያ በኌላ ኤርትራ ከቀሩት ቤተሰቦቿ ጋራ በእኩልነት ላይ በተመሠረተ መንገድና አብሮ መኖር በአለም ዙሪ በሚለውም መሰረት ተባብረን አብረን እኖራለን በሚል ምንጊዜም ሃሣቤ ነው::

ወንድም መርሐዊ! እኔ የሻቢያ ተማራኪ አልነበርኩም:: ሁላቺንም እኩል እድሜና ብርታት ያለን ነበርን በወቅቱ:: ማንም ተማራኪ ማንም ማራኪ አልነበረም:: ደርግ አይደለም የኢትዮጵያ ሰራዊት ነው እዚያ የነበሩት:: ነገር ግን ነጋዴ ጀኔራሎች ህዝብን አበሳጭ ሁኔታን በማድረጋቸው ህዝቡ መሮት ወዳሻቢያ ገባና ተዓምር ተፈጠረ እንጂ እያንዳንዱ ኤርትራዊ ኢትዮጵያ እናት አገሩን ይወዳታል:: ስብከት እንዳታስመስልብኝ እኛ አንድ ህዝብ ነን::

የራስህ ምርጫ ነው እኔ እንደዚያ ነው ምንጊዜም የማስበው አርኬ::

ጉራ አልወድም ነገር ግን ሁለቱ ህዝቦች ባንድ ላይ ቢኖሩ የበለጠ ይከብራሉ ይሻሻላሉ:: አባይን ግማሹን ወስደን አገራቺንን እናለማታለን:: አረንጓዴዋ ደሴት ትባላለቺ ብዙ ነገሮች አሉ የባቡሩ ኃዲድ ከፌርፌር እስከ ቃሩራ ይዘረጋል ንግዱና ሃብቱ ላይጣል ይሆናል ከሆታ በስተቀር ለቅሶ በዚያ አካባቢ አይኖርም አኩሪ ባህላቺንን እምነቶቻቺንን እንጠቀምባቸዋለን:: ከዚያ የበለጠ ለሰው ልጅ ምንድነው አስፈላጊው ንገረኝ እስቲ?

አሁንም ላናድህ እንደዚያ ስትናደዱ አንዳንዴ ደስ ይለኛል:: አገር መውደዳቺሁን ደግሞ ሳላደንቀው አላልፍም::

*ቀይ ባህር ዳር ድንበራቺን ነው* አፋር ቤተሰቦቼ ናቸው በይሉል ያሉት*

አክባሪህ

ወርቅሰው1
ከ(ሰሐሊን)

ማስተካከያ!

መርሃዊ የኤርትራን ታሪክ ጥሩ አድርጌ ለወደፊቱ እነግርኃለሁ ወጣት ትመስለኛለህ የነገሩህን ሰምተህ ስለላክልኝ ሳላመስወግንህ አላልፍም እንደምትለው ሳይሆን ኤርትራን ያስተዳድሩ የነበሩት ወልቃይቶ ጠገዴዎቹ ሰሜን አትርማጭሆዎች ነበሩ:: ሃማሴን የመጣው ከዚያ ነው ለዚያም ነው ጦረኛ እየሆኑ እስከዛሬ እያሸገሩ ያሉት:: ኃይለኞች ናቸው ጠያይሞች የሰሜኗ ኮኮቦች የኢትዮጵያ ኮረዳዎቹን ተመልከታቸው እስቲ ጎንደሬዎቹን አይመስሉህም?




መራሀዊ wrote:ወርቅሰው.....ያንተ ለቅሶ ሁልጊዜ ተደጋጋሚ በጣም ከብዙሀኑ የኢትዮጵያ አስተሳሰብ የተለየ....መንግስቱ በአሁኑ ሰአት እንደአንተ አይነት አስተሳሰብ የለውም እንኳን አንት....ነበር,ናቸው እያልክ እንደአፈ ታሪክ ወሬ ታበዛለህ

ምናልባት በደርግ ጊዜያት ከሚማረኩት ምርከኞች አንዱ አንተ ሳትሆን አትቀርም የመጀመርያ የደርግ ሰራዊቶች አብዛኛዎቹ ወደ ሱዳን ከዚያም ወደ ተለያየ የተሻገሩ ናቸው...እና አንተም ፍቅር ልብህ ውስጥ የሰረጸ ይመስል ""ቀይ ባህር ዳር ድንበራችን ነው እያልክ ""ትፎክራለህ ማን ሊሰማህ ነበሩ ናቸው እያልክ ለቅሶ ታበዛለህ ማን አብሮህ ሊያንጎረጉር... አይደለም የውጪ የውስጣዊ የሀገርህን እና የወገንህን ጉዳይ ልትፈታ የማትችል በሩቁ ሆነህ በናፍቆት የምትቃጠል አንተ ድሮ የምታውቃት ኢትዮጵያ መስላህ እንዳይመስልህ....የማንም ---- የወገንህን ደም በውስኪ ብርጭቆ ነው የሚጠጣው ያለው ስለዚህ ከወቅታዊ ጉዳይ ጋር አስተሳሰብህ ቢሄድ ይሻላል...

ለማንኛውም ትንሽ ይህችን ጽሁፍ እንድታነባት ...

History of Eritrea

Eritrea is one of the newest and most promising nations in Africa -- and containts remnants of some of its oldest civilizations. One of the earliest known references to Eritrea is from Aeschylus (Fragment 67) in which he refers to the "Mare Erythreum" (Red Sea) as "the lake that is the jewel of Ethiopia." Eritrea recently fought and won one of the longest wars in the world. After thirty years of bitter strugle, Eritrea achieve total independence and the right to self-determination. The Eritrean people acheived their goals in 1991 in a stunning defeat of the occupying Ethiopian forces which also helped liberate Ethiopia from the Soviet-backed Dergue (Menguistu Hailemariam) regime.

Early History

Between 1000 and 400 BC, a semitic group of people known as the Sabeans crossed the Red Sea into the region known as present Eritrea, and intermingled with the Hamitic inhabitants who had migrated from the northern Sudan. The region was then controlled by various foreign invaders such as the Axumite kingdom, the Funji Sultans of Sudan, the Egyptians, the Portugese and the Turks. Each of these foreign occupiers had a distinct impact on the development of present day Eritrea as a nation and in the formation of an Eritrean identity.

Colonisation; ITALY

None, however, was quite as significant as the Italian colonial period from 1880 - 1941. This was the era during which Eritrea emerged as a distinct society and territory. In the late 1880's Italy purchased the port of Assab from a commercial company that was administering it. Encouraged by the British, who were then attempting to contain France's colonial asspirations in the Horn, Italy proceeded to colonize the region. Italy moved to transform Eritrea, with its access to sea and agricultural potential, into a permanent colony. The king of Italy issued a decree that formally established Eritrea on 1 January 1890. Eritrea was defined as a Nation State, and a colony of Italy. Italian immigration began at the turn of the century. At the twilight of of the Italian colonial era (late 1930s) about 70,000 Italians had settled in Eritrea. Italian agricultural policy for Eritrea was designed to primarily benefit the settlement population and to sustain Italian exports to Europe and East Africa. The development of a market- based economy required that the Italians upgrade Eritrea's infrastructure. The extensive communications and transportation facilities that were established were among the best in Africa during this era. The Italians built railway lines between Asmara and Keren and Agordat. The port of Massawa was linked by rail to the interior. All-weather roads were constructed through the mountains of Eritrea and the lowlands. Two modern airports were built. An export-based industrial sector was created and Eritrea forged new links with the international economy. National Identity and, gradually, a national consciousness developed during this era. People from diverse economic, ethnic and religious backgrounds were structurally linked within the colonial borders. Their experiences differed sharply from those of their neighbors in Ethiopia. Ethiopia remained dominated by a feudal economic system managed by imperial rule. By the 1940s, Eritrea had evolved a substantial working class as well as a distinct urban- based intelligentsia. Neverthless Italian colonial rule was not benign. The Italian administration reflected the views and aspirations of a fascist government. Eritrea's people were seen as little more than a source of cheap labour to fuel the aims of Rome. Eritreans played only subsidiary roles in their country's economic and political development.


Colonialism; GREAT BRITAIN

With the defeat of Italy in 1941, the great powers (France, Soviet Union, UK and the US) decided that Great Britain would then govern Eritrea as a protectorate. The British Military Administration (BMA) ruled Eritrea as "Occupied Enemy Territory." The Eritrean people viewed the British as a welcome respite from Italian fascist rule. Nonethless, Eritrean society was by then experiencing the first stirrings of the desire for self determination. Peasant resistance had increased during the final years of Italian governance. The economic hardships suffered because of the dominance of foreign agendas began to make Eritreans conscious of the need to chart their own economic future. Until this period, Ethiopian involvement in Eritrea was quite limited. From the turn of the century through the onset of British military rule, Eritrea and Ethiopia moved on separate economic and political tracks. Eritrea developed a colonial-based market economy while Ethiopia maintained feudalism. By the 1940's, however, Ethiopian designs on Eritrea clearly emerged. The newly-reinstated Emperor of Ethiopia began his effort to gain influence and control over Eritrea. Ethiopia employed three primary tactics to acheive its goal of increasing influence and domination. These were interference in the religious affairs of Eritrea, manipulation of political parties and organizations, and terrorism. The British responce to Ethiopia's increasingly interventionist stance was largely ineffectual. They were unable to counter the growing disruption generated from Addis Ababa.

UN Decides Eritrea's Fate

The end of World War II resulted in UN oversight of Eritrea. By this time the BMA was finding it difficult to govern Eritrea. Ethiopia was staking a claim through intervention and diplomatic efforts. The US, which had maintained a presence in British-administered Eritrea, was showing increasing interest in obtaining a strategic presence on the Red Sea coast. The discussions that were to define Eritrea's future for the coming forty years began in April 1949 in New York. Various proposals - partition, annexation and independence - were debated. According to the British, 75 percent of the population suported Independence. On 2 December 1950, the UN passed a resolution that formally federated Eritrea to Ethiopia. In September 1952, the agreement was put into practice and Ethiopians replaced the British. The international decision regarding the fate of Eritrea had little to do with the aspirations of the Eritrean people themselves.

Liberation Struggle: 1961-1991

Although there was organized resistance throughout the British Military Administration and federation with Ethiopia, the first act of armed resistance by Eritreans against Ethiopian rule was September 1, 1961. The event became a pretext for total annexation by Ethiopia on November 14, 1962. Scattered resistance groups formed links with pro-independence movements outside the country, and the first organized military front, the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) was formed. By 1965 the ELF had about 1,000 fighters in the field.

In an effort to deal with the cultural and geographic challenges of waging a national campaign for liberation, the ELF established semi-autonomous zones. This led eventually to "balkanization" of the resistance movement into Muslim and Christian factions, with some key defections over to the Ethiopian side. Following a concerted attack on the ELF by the Ethiopians, there were calls for unity within the liberation movement, matched by more defections and splinter movements. During this same period (late 1960s and early 1970s) Emperor Haile Selassie was also losing his grip on internal affairs throughout Ethiopia. Large numbers of Christian highlanders joined the ELF, and a second military force, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) was formed. By 1976 the ELF and EPLF had a combined force of 20,000, and were making signficant advances in controlling the rural and less-populated regions of the country.

The EPLF quickly became the more powerful of the two forces, and was more effective when meeting Ethiopian troops. In 1980, angered by an attack in which the ELF left their flanks exposed, the EPLF drove their rivals from the field, and faced the enemy alone for the remainder of the war.
Despite increased Soviet support for the Dergue (Menguistu Hailemariam) regime, amounting to more than $16 billion, the EPLF succeeded in meeting its better-equipped enemy head-on in a series of eight offenses, where the odds favored the Ethiopians by 10:1 in most cases. Using a strategy of strategic retreats and lightning counter-attacks, the EPLF was able to re-capture 90% of Eritreans from a demoralized Ethiopian army by 1990.

The infrastructure created for support of EPLF troops and their civilian charges was just as significant in bringing about eventual liberation as was the military skill and bravery of the outnumbered soldiers. The EPLF established networks of underground hospitals, factories, schools, and libraries for the benefit of the people in liberated zones. Literacy and public health campaigns significantly improved the daily lives of peasant farmers, despite the war being fought on all sides. The EPLF insituted innovative civil administration, legal and social codes that transformed the traditional and colonial structures that preceded them. Marriage, property and inheritance customs were re-vamped to provide equality for historically oppressed Eritrean women. More than 30% of the EPLF's combatants were women, and their contribution was too significant for the society to willingly turn its back, and return to the old ways.


The Birth of a Nation

The 24th of May 1993, brought in the dawn of a new era for the Eritrean people. Having won the right to define their own future, they voted for Independence in a referendum held from the 23rd-25th of April 1993. On the 27th of April 1993, the Independent Eritrean Referendum Commission, the United Nations Observer Mission for the Eritrean Referendum (UNOVER), the OAU, the Arab League, the Non - Aligned Movement, the National Citizens Monitoring Group and numerous individual observers were unanimous in their conclusion, that the referendum had been unequivocally free and fair. In the words of the then Provisional Government of Eritrea (PGE) Secretary General; Issaias Afwerki; the referendum was " a delightful and sacrosanct historical conclusion to the choice of the Eritrean people. And although it has been decided that formal independence will be declared on 24 May 1993, Eritrea is a soverign country as of today." (27 April 1993). The Independence of Eritrea and its territorial sovereignity was immediately recognised by the world.

ERITREA: CHARACTERISTICS

The people The people of Eritrea, are known as Eritreans. They are a resilient group of people who thrive on hope and a deep tradition of comradeship among each other. The fact that most of the population spent many years in Diaspora or on the war front, has helped in establishing a deep bond between them that trancends mere ethnic or religious divisions.

POPULATION: 3,467,087 (July 1993 est.)
GROWTH RATE: 3.46% (1993 est.)
ETHNIC GROUPS: Bilen, Nara, Afar, Tigre, Kunama, Hadareb, Saho, Rashaida, Tigrinya
RELIGIONS: Christianity, Islam, Animist

Geography Today; Eritrea occupies a strategic position along the worlds busiest shipping lanes and the Middl East oil fields, and is also an oasis of stability in the volaitaile regions of the Horn of Africa. Eritrea retained its entire coast line along the Red Sea, upon its independence on 27 April 1993; leaving Ethiopia landlocked.

LOCATION: Horn of Africa; bordered to the North and West by Sudan; South by Ethiopia; South-East by Djibouti and to the North -East by the Red Sea.

AREA SIZE: Total land area is 121,320 km sq. Eritrea is slightly larger than either England or Pennsylvania.

LAND BOUNDARIES: Total 1,630 km. Boundaries with neighbouring countries is 113 km with Djibouti; 912 km with Ethiopia and 605 km with the Sudan.

COAST LINE: Coast line by the Red Sea is 1,151 km; together with the Dahlack Archipelagos is 2,234 km.

MARITIME CLAIMS: Teritorial claims on the Red Sea; 12 nautical miles.

DATELINE: A POLITICAL HISTORY
1889- Eritrea defined as a Nation State/ colonised by Italy.
1941- World War II/ Italy defeated in Africa/ Eritrea is now governed by the British.
1952- Eritrea federated as an autonomous state with Ethiopia.
1961- The beginning of the Independence war by the ELF (the Eritrean Liberation Front).
1962- Ethiopia annexes Eritrea as it's 14th province.
1970- EPLF (Eritrean People's Liberation Front) formed.
1976-8 Liberation movements take control over most of the towns and countryside.
1991- Eritrea liberated from Ethiopia by the EPLF. Transitional govt. set up with Secretary - General of the EPLF, Issaias Afwerki as leader.
1993- UN sponsored referendum for Independence of Eritrea held on APRIL 23rd - 25th. 99% of the votes cast are pro Independence. On April 27th Eritrea becomes an Independent and recognised nation. MAY 24 is proclaimed National Day in Eritrea.

መርሀዊ
ወርቅሰው1
ዋና አለቃ
ዋና አለቃ
 
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Re: ለወርቅሰው

Postby አዳማ » Wed Oct 12, 2005 2:46 am

አይ ርካሽሰው የነፍጥ ልጅ መሆንህ ተስፋፊ ባህሪህ ምስክር ነው:: ምላስ ብቻ ነህ"" ደቡብ ኦሮሞ አገር የገደልከው ህዝብና የዘመትከው መሬት አልበቃ ብሎህ ቀይ ባህር ናቅፋና ምናምን ፈለግክ? ጥርስህ አልቆአል ወላልቆአል:: ሞትህ ተጠባበቅ::
ወርቅሰው1 wrote:መርሀዊ!
ስለሰጠኸኝ መጠኑን የጠበቀና አክብሮት የተቀላቀለበትን "ሰበካህንም "ተረዳሁ::

ከባድ ፖለቲካኛ ነህ:: ወንድሜ ሆይ እርግጥ ነው:: ኤርትራን በደንብ የማውቃት አገሬ ነች:: አንተ ተወለድኩባት የምትለው አታውቃትም:: ውኃ ለሰው ልጅ አስፈላጊ ነው:: የት ምንጮች እንዳሉና እንደሚገኙ አውቃለሁ::

ኤርትራውስጥ በአልጌናና ናቅፋ መሐከል ታስታውስ እንደሆነ ሻቢያና ጀበኃ ጦርነት ላንዴና ለመጨረሻ ጊዜ ያደረጉበት ቦታ:: እዚያ የጋዝ ሽታው አያስኬድህም ሌሊትም አያስተኛህም እውነት ነው የምነግርህ ያንን ቦታ ይልቅስ በደንብ ይፈተሽ ለኤርትራ ኤኮኖሚ ይረዳል::

ወርቅ የት እንደሚገኝ ደግሞ አልነግርህም:: የጃፓን ካምፓኒ ሰርቶ ሻቢያ ያቃጠለው ቦታ ብቻ እንዳይደለ አስቡ::

እስከዚህ ለኤርትራም አስብላታለሁ በሚገባ ያንን የትጥቅ ትግል እንዳይኖር በሰላማዊ ድርድር ወንድሞቻቺን አብረውን እንዲኖሩና የውስጥ አስተዳደራቸውን ያልምንም ተጽ እኖ እንዲኖሩ ከሚመኙት ኢትዮጵያውያን ወገኖች ህ አንዱ ነኝ::

ታዲያ የናንተ የሻቢያ ጥፋት ምን መሰለህ ለፍታቺሁ ለፍታቺሁ ብዙ ከሄዳቺሁ በኌላ ድንባዣሙን መለሰ ዜናዊን ወደ አፋበት ወይም ናቅፋ ታልሆነም አልጌናና ቅጥልጥሎ ተራራ ድንጋዩ የሰማይ ስባሪ የሚመስለው ውስጥ ወስዳቺሁ ያጠመቃቺሁት ጽበል የአቡነ ፊሊጶስ ይሁን ወይስ የጋንጩሩ መሆኑን ሳታጣሩ የኤርትራ ጥያቄ የቅኝ ግዛት ጥያቄ ነው ብሎ መጽሐፍ ጽፎ በቃ ዋናው አምባሳደር ዘ ሻቢያ አድርጋቺሁት ለቃቺሁብን ይኸው ዛሬ ምን እያደረገ እንደሚገኝ ልብህ ይፈርደዋል::

ሻቢያ ሞኙ (ሰው አማኙ) ያንን ሁሉ እድል ከመስጠቱም አልፎ እንደገና መለሰ ድንበር ሣያካልላቺሁ እንኳን ሂዱ ብሏቺሁ ጉድ ሠራቺሁ እስካሁን ከዕድገታቺሁ ተጓደላቺሁ ወደድክም ጠላኸውም የህዝብ ልጆች በ2ቱም በኩል አለቁ:: ለምን?

መርሃዊ ጥቁር በጥቁር ቀርቶ በአለም ላይ የሚገኙ የሰው ልጆችን ሰላምና መልካም ኑሮ ይመኝላቸዋል በሚል ነው የጻፍኩልህ የልቤን:: በሚገባ ምንጊዜም ኢትዮጵያ በስፍርዋ ትኖራለች:: ነበረ አለቺም ለወደፊትም ትቀጥላላለች:: የሰው ልጅ ህይወት በንምድር ላይ እስካለ ድረስ::

መስማማት አለብን የመለሰ ዜናዊ ህወኃትና ወያኔ ገለመሌዎቻቸው ከነሰንኮፋቸው መሄድ አለባቸው ከዚያ በኌላ ኤርትራ ከቀሩት ቤተሰቦቿ ጋራ በእኩልነት ላይ በተመሠረተ መንገድና አብሮ መኖር በአለም ዙሪ በሚለውም መሰረት ተባብረን አብረን እኖራለን በሚል ምንጊዜም ሃሣቤ ነው::

ወንድም መርሐዊ! እኔ የሻቢያ ተማራኪ አልነበርኩም:: ሁላቺንም እኩል እድሜና ብርታት ያለን ነበርን በወቅቱ:: ማንም ተማራኪ ማንም ማራኪ አልነበረም:: ደርግ አይደለም የኢትዮጵያ ሰራዊት ነው እዚያ የነበሩት:: ነገር ግን ነጋዴ ጀኔራሎች ህዝብን አበሳጭ ሁኔታን በማድረጋቸው ህዝቡ መሮት ወዳሻቢያ ገባና ተዓምር ተፈጠረ እንጂ እያንዳንዱ ኤርትራዊ ኢትዮጵያ እናት አገሩን ይወዳታል:: ስብከት እንዳታስመስልብኝ እኛ አንድ ህዝብ ነን::

የራስህ ምርጫ ነው እኔ እንደዚያ ነው ምንጊዜም የማስበው አርኬ::

ጉራ አልወድም ነገር ግን ሁለቱ ህዝቦች ባንድ ላይ ቢኖሩ የበለጠ ይከብራሉ ይሻሻላሉ:: አባይን ግማሹን ወስደን አገራቺንን እናለማታለን:: አረንጓዴዋ ደሴት ትባላለቺ ብዙ ነገሮች አሉ የባቡሩ ኃዲድ ከፌርፌር እስከ ቃሩራ ይዘረጋል ንግዱና ሃብቱ ላይጣል ይሆናል ከሆታ በስተቀር ለቅሶ በዚያ አካባቢ አይኖርም አኩሪ ባህላቺንን እምነቶቻቺንን እንጠቀምባቸዋለን:: ከዚያ የበለጠ ለሰው ልጅ ምንድነው አስፈላጊው ንገረኝ እስቲ?

አሁንም ላናድህ እንደዚያ ስትናደዱ አንዳንዴ ደስ ይለኛል:: አገር መውደዳቺሁን ደግሞ ሳላደንቀው አላልፍም::

*ቀይ ባህር ዳር ድንበራቺን ነው* አፋር ቤተሰቦቼ ናቸው በይሉል ያሉት*

አክባሪህ

ወርቅሰው1
ከ(ሰሐሊን)

ማስተካከያ!

መርሃዊ የኤርትራን ታሪክ ጥሩ አድርጌ ለወደፊቱ እነግርኃለሁ ወጣት ትመስለኛለህ የነገሩህን ሰምተህ ስለላክልኝ ሳላመስወግንህ አላልፍም እንደምትለው ሳይሆን ኤርትራን ያስተዳድሩ የነበሩት ወልቃይቶ ጠገዴዎቹ ሰሜን አትርማጭሆዎች ነበሩ:: ሃማሴን የመጣው ከዚያ ነው ለዚያም ነው ጦረኛ እየሆኑ እስከዛሬ እያሸገሩ ያሉት:: ኃይለኞች ናቸው ጠያይሞች የሰሜኗ ኮኮቦች የኢትዮጵያ ኮረዳዎቹን ተመልከታቸው እስቲ ጎንደሬዎቹን አይመስሉህም?




መራሀዊ wrote:ወርቅሰው.....ያንተ ለቅሶ ሁልጊዜ ተደጋጋሚ በጣም ከብዙሀኑ የኢትዮጵያ አስተሳሰብ የተለየ....መንግስቱ በአሁኑ ሰአት እንደአንተ አይነት አስተሳሰብ የለውም እንኳን አንት....ነበር,ናቸው እያልክ እንደአፈ ታሪክ ወሬ ታበዛለህ

ምናልባት በደርግ ጊዜያት ከሚማረኩት ምርከኞች አንዱ አንተ ሳትሆን አትቀርም የመጀመርያ የደርግ ሰራዊቶች አብዛኛዎቹ ወደ ሱዳን ከዚያም ወደ ተለያየ የተሻገሩ ናቸው...እና አንተም ፍቅር ልብህ ውስጥ የሰረጸ ይመስል ""ቀይ ባህር ዳር ድንበራችን ነው እያልክ ""ትፎክራለህ ማን ሊሰማህ ነበሩ ናቸው እያልክ ለቅሶ ታበዛለህ ማን አብሮህ ሊያንጎረጉር... አይደለም የውጪ የውስጣዊ የሀገርህን እና የወገንህን ጉዳይ ልትፈታ የማትችል በሩቁ ሆነህ በናፍቆት የምትቃጠል አንተ ድሮ የምታውቃት ኢትዮጵያ መስላህ እንዳይመስልህ....የማንም ---- የወገንህን ደም በውስኪ ብርጭቆ ነው የሚጠጣው ያለው ስለዚህ ከወቅታዊ ጉዳይ ጋር አስተሳሰብህ ቢሄድ ይሻላል...

ለማንኛውም ትንሽ ይህችን ጽሁፍ እንድታነባት ...

History of Eritrea

Eritrea is one of the newest and most promising nations in Africa -- and containts remnants of some of its oldest civilizations. One of the earliest known references to Eritrea is from Aeschylus (Fragment 67) in which he refers to the "Mare Erythreum" (Red Sea) as "the lake that is the jewel of Ethiopia." Eritrea recently fought and won one of the longest wars in the world. After thirty years of bitter strugle, Eritrea achieve total independence and the right to self-determination. The Eritrean people acheived their goals in 1991 in a stunning defeat of the occupying Ethiopian forces which also helped liberate Ethiopia from the Soviet-backed Dergue (Menguistu Hailemariam) regime.

Early History

Between 1000 and 400 BC, a semitic group of people known as the Sabeans crossed the Red Sea into the region known as present Eritrea, and intermingled with the Hamitic inhabitants who had migrated from the northern Sudan. The region was then controlled by various foreign invaders such as the Axumite kingdom, the Funji Sultans of Sudan, the Egyptians, the Portugese and the Turks. Each of these foreign occupiers had a distinct impact on the development of present day Eritrea as a nation and in the formation of an Eritrean identity.

Colonisation; ITALY

None, however, was quite as significant as the Italian colonial period from 1880 - 1941. This was the era during which Eritrea emerged as a distinct society and territory. In the late 1880's Italy purchased the port of Assab from a commercial company that was administering it. Encouraged by the British, who were then attempting to contain France's colonial asspirations in the Horn, Italy proceeded to colonize the region. Italy moved to transform Eritrea, with its access to sea and agricultural potential, into a permanent colony. The king of Italy issued a decree that formally established Eritrea on 1 January 1890. Eritrea was defined as a Nation State, and a colony of Italy. Italian immigration began at the turn of the century. At the twilight of of the Italian colonial era (late 1930s) about 70,000 Italians had settled in Eritrea. Italian agricultural policy for Eritrea was designed to primarily benefit the settlement population and to sustain Italian exports to Europe and East Africa. The development of a market- based economy required that the Italians upgrade Eritrea's infrastructure. The extensive communications and transportation facilities that were established were among the best in Africa during this era. The Italians built railway lines between Asmara and Keren and Agordat. The port of Massawa was linked by rail to the interior. All-weather roads were constructed through the mountains of Eritrea and the lowlands. Two modern airports were built. An export-based industrial sector was created and Eritrea forged new links with the international economy. National Identity and, gradually, a national consciousness developed during this era. People from diverse economic, ethnic and religious backgrounds were structurally linked within the colonial borders. Their experiences differed sharply from those of their neighbors in Ethiopia. Ethiopia remained dominated by a feudal economic system managed by imperial rule. By the 1940s, Eritrea had evolved a substantial working class as well as a distinct urban- based intelligentsia. Neverthless Italian colonial rule was not benign. The Italian administration reflected the views and aspirations of a fascist government. Eritrea's people were seen as little more than a source of cheap labour to fuel the aims of Rome. Eritreans played only subsidiary roles in their country's economic and political development.


Colonialism; GREAT BRITAIN

With the defeat of Italy in 1941, the great powers (France, Soviet Union, UK and the US) decided that Great Britain would then govern Eritrea as a protectorate. The British Military Administration (BMA) ruled Eritrea as "Occupied Enemy Territory." The Eritrean people viewed the British as a welcome respite from Italian fascist rule. Nonethless, Eritrean society was by then experiencing the first stirrings of the desire for self determination. Peasant resistance had increased during the final years of Italian governance. The economic hardships suffered because of the dominance of foreign agendas began to make Eritreans conscious of the need to chart their own economic future. Until this period, Ethiopian involvement in Eritrea was quite limited. From the turn of the century through the onset of British military rule, Eritrea and Ethiopia moved on separate economic and political tracks. Eritrea developed a colonial-based market economy while Ethiopia maintained feudalism. By the 1940's, however, Ethiopian designs on Eritrea clearly emerged. The newly-reinstated Emperor of Ethiopia began his effort to gain influence and control over Eritrea. Ethiopia employed three primary tactics to acheive its goal of increasing influence and domination. These were interference in the religious affairs of Eritrea, manipulation of political parties and organizations, and terrorism. The British responce to Ethiopia's increasingly interventionist stance was largely ineffectual. They were unable to counter the growing disruption generated from Addis Ababa.

UN Decides Eritrea's Fate

The end of World War II resulted in UN oversight of Eritrea. By this time the BMA was finding it difficult to govern Eritrea. Ethiopia was staking a claim through intervention and diplomatic efforts. The US, which had maintained a presence in British-administered Eritrea, was showing increasing interest in obtaining a strategic presence on the Red Sea coast. The discussions that were to define Eritrea's future for the coming forty years began in April 1949 in New York. Various proposals - partition, annexation and independence - were debated. According to the British, 75 percent of the population suported Independence. On 2 December 1950, the UN passed a resolution that formally federated Eritrea to Ethiopia. In September 1952, the agreement was put into practice and Ethiopians replaced the British. The international decision regarding the fate of Eritrea had little to do with the aspirations of the Eritrean people themselves.

Liberation Struggle: 1961-1991

Although there was organized resistance throughout the British Military Administration and federation with Ethiopia, the first act of armed resistance by Eritreans against Ethiopian rule was September 1, 1961. The event became a pretext for total annexation by Ethiopia on November 14, 1962. Scattered resistance groups formed links with pro-independence movements outside the country, and the first organized military front, the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) was formed. By 1965 the ELF had about 1,000 fighters in the field.

In an effort to deal with the cultural and geographic challenges of waging a national campaign for liberation, the ELF established semi-autonomous zones. This led eventually to "balkanization" of the resistance movement into Muslim and Christian factions, with some key defections over to the Ethiopian side. Following a concerted attack on the ELF by the Ethiopians, there were calls for unity within the liberation movement, matched by more defections and splinter movements. During this same period (late 1960s and early 1970s) Emperor Haile Selassie was also losing his grip on internal affairs throughout Ethiopia. Large numbers of Christian highlanders joined the ELF, and a second military force, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) was formed. By 1976 the ELF and EPLF had a combined force of 20,000, and were making signficant advances in controlling the rural and less-populated regions of the country.

The EPLF quickly became the more powerful of the two forces, and was more effective when meeting Ethiopian troops. In 1980, angered by an attack in which the ELF left their flanks exposed, the EPLF drove their rivals from the field, and faced the enemy alone for the remainder of the war.
Despite increased Soviet support for the Dergue (Menguistu Hailemariam) regime, amounting to more than $16 billion, the EPLF succeeded in meeting its better-equipped enemy head-on in a series of eight offenses, where the odds favored the Ethiopians by 10:1 in most cases. Using a strategy of strategic retreats and lightning counter-attacks, the EPLF was able to re-capture 90% of Eritreans from a demoralized Ethiopian army by 1990.

The infrastructure created for support of EPLF troops and their civilian charges was just as significant in bringing about eventual liberation as was the military skill and bravery of the outnumbered soldiers. The EPLF established networks of underground hospitals, factories, schools, and libraries for the benefit of the people in liberated zones. Literacy and public health campaigns significantly improved the daily lives of peasant farmers, despite the war being fought on all sides. The EPLF insituted innovative civil administration, legal and social codes that transformed the traditional and colonial structures that preceded them. Marriage, property and inheritance customs were re-vamped to provide equality for historically oppressed Eritrean women. More than 30% of the EPLF's combatants were women, and their contribution was too significant for the society to willingly turn its back, and return to the old ways.


The Birth of a Nation

The 24th of May 1993, brought in the dawn of a new era for the Eritrean people. Having won the right to define their own future, they voted for Independence in a referendum held from the 23rd-25th of April 1993. On the 27th of April 1993, the Independent Eritrean Referendum Commission, the United Nations Observer Mission for the Eritrean Referendum (UNOVER), the OAU, the Arab League, the Non - Aligned Movement, the National Citizens Monitoring Group and numerous individual observers were unanimous in their conclusion, that the referendum had been unequivocally free and fair. In the words of the then Provisional Government of Eritrea (PGE) Secretary General; Issaias Afwerki; the referendum was " a delightful and sacrosanct historical conclusion to the choice of the Eritrean people. And although it has been decided that formal independence will be declared on 24 May 1993, Eritrea is a soverign country as of today." (27 April 1993). The Independence of Eritrea and its territorial sovereignity was immediately recognised by the world.

ERITREA: CHARACTERISTICS

The people The people of Eritrea, are known as Eritreans. They are a resilient group of people who thrive on hope and a deep tradition of comradeship among each other. The fact that most of the population spent many years in Diaspora or on the war front, has helped in establishing a deep bond between them that trancends mere ethnic or religious divisions.

POPULATION: 3,467,087 (July 1993 est.)
GROWTH RATE: 3.46% (1993 est.)
ETHNIC GROUPS: Bilen, Nara, Afar, Tigre, Kunama, Hadareb, Saho, Rashaida, Tigrinya
RELIGIONS: Christianity, Islam, Animist

Geography Today; Eritrea occupies a strategic position along the worlds busiest shipping lanes and the Middl East oil fields, and is also an oasis of stability in the volaitaile regions of the Horn of Africa. Eritrea retained its entire coast line along the Red Sea, upon its independence on 27 April 1993; leaving Ethiopia landlocked.

LOCATION: Horn of Africa; bordered to the North and West by Sudan; South by Ethiopia; South-East by Djibouti and to the North -East by the Red Sea.

AREA SIZE: Total land area is 121,320 km sq. Eritrea is slightly larger than either England or Pennsylvania.

LAND BOUNDARIES: Total 1,630 km. Boundaries with neighbouring countries is 113 km with Djibouti; 912 km with Ethiopia and 605 km with the Sudan.

COAST LINE: Coast line by the Red Sea is 1,151 km; together with the Dahlack Archipelagos is 2,234 km.

MARITIME CLAIMS: Teritorial claims on the Red Sea; 12 nautical miles.

DATELINE: A POLITICAL HISTORY
1889- Eritrea defined as a Nation State/ colonised by Italy.
1941- World War II/ Italy defeated in Africa/ Eritrea is now governed by the British.
1952- Eritrea federated as an autonomous state with Ethiopia.
1961- The beginning of the Independence war by the ELF (the Eritrean Liberation Front).
1962- Ethiopia annexes Eritrea as it's 14th province.
1970- EPLF (Eritrean People's Liberation Front) formed.
1976-8 Liberation movements take control over most of the towns and countryside.
1991- Eritrea liberated from Ethiopia by the EPLF. Transitional govt. set up with Secretary - General of the EPLF, Issaias Afwerki as leader.
1993- UN sponsored referendum for Independence of Eritrea held on APRIL 23rd - 25th. 99% of the votes cast are pro Independence. On April 27th Eritrea becomes an Independent and recognised nation. MAY 24 is proclaimed National Day in Eritrea.

መርሀዊ
አዳማ
ኮትኳች
ኮትኳች
 
Posts: 102
Joined: Mon May 16, 2005 2:30 am
Location: ethiopia

Re: ለወርቅሰው

Postby ወርቅሰው1 » Wed Oct 12, 2005 5:28 am

ብዙ ጀበኃዎች አዳማ ይኖሩ ነበር አሁንም አሉ ዘሮቻቸው<.. ኢትዮጵያ አሳድጋና አስተምራ አብልታ አጠጥታ በመጨረሻ እነኛው ገደሏት:: ከኃዲ::

አዳማ እኔ ተወለድኩባት እንጂ እንዳተ አንቀባራ አላሳደገቺኝም:: አንተ ግን ክትፎው ከዝግኒ ወተቷን ከውስኪና ቢራው አማርጠህ በልተህ ጠጥተህ የኖርክባትን አገር ከድተህ ዛሬ እየጻፍክ የምጽተዋለውን ህዝብ ታዛቢ ይፈርድብኃል::

እንኳን ሄዳቺሁም ያሰኛል:: ግን ብዙ ጥሩ ሰዎች ስላሉ እነኛን በማሰብ እንጂ "እስኩኒስ" ሔደና ማን ያዝናል ብለኸ ነው:: እንዲያውም ቀይባህር ብቻ ሳይሆን ከዚያም አልፎ ኩናማና ሳሆዎችን አሳውርታዎችንንና ብሌንኖችን ይጨምርልኃል:: አፋሮችማ ባንተ ሳይሆን ኢትዮጵዮጵያዊያን ናቸው::

አንተ የሠይጣን መልክተኛ ትመስለኛለህ:: የፋሺስቶች ጮሌ አገር አፍራሽ ወንበዴ አዲሱ ትውልድ እያነበበህ ነው አገሩን ለዚህ ያበቃው ሻቢያ መሆኑንም ይገነዘባል:: እስክትሞት ድረስ በልብህ ውጥ ሰላም የለህም ሰላምም ይርቅህና አንድ ቀን ይዞህ ይኼዳል ትከነተራለህ:: አዳማ ስትል አሁን የማናውቅ መስሎህ አንተ የሜዳ ሻቢያ የኦሮሞን ስም አንስተህ በስሙ ስምህን መጻፍህ አስደነቀኝ እስከዚህ የተንኮል ጎሬ ነህ:: አንተና አንተንም የመሳሰሉ እስኩኒሶች ጸባይ::

የጥርስ በሺታ ይዞኃል መሰለኝ ወይም ሌሊት የምትሮጥ ትመስለኛለህ በዚያ የተነሳ የተበላሸ ጥርስ የያዝክ ትመስለኛለህ::

እኔ ኃሣቤን አንጸባረቅሁ እንጂ ያንተን ክብር አልነካሁም ነበር ይህቺን የሣይበር ካፌህን ስድብ ቀጥል ታገኛታለህ::

አሁንም !

*ዳር ድንበራቺን ቀይ ባህር ነው*

አፋር ማለት የኢትዮጵያ አንጋፋ ልጇ ናቸው::

ኢትዮጵያ ትቅደም

ወርቅሰው1
ከ(ሰሐሊን)





አዳማ wrote:አይ ርካሽሰው የነፍጥ ልጅ መሆንህ ተስፋፊ ባህሪህ ምስክር ነው:: ምላስ ብቻ ነህ"" ደቡብ ኦሮሞ አገር የገደልከው ህዝብና የዘመትከው መሬት አልበቃ ብሎህ ቀይ ባህር ናቅፋና ምናምን ፈለግክ? ጥርስህ አልቆአል ወላልቆአል:: ሞትህ ተጠባበቅ::
ወርቅሰው1 wrote:መርሀዊ!
ስለሰጠኸኝ መጠኑን የጠበቀና አክብሮት የተቀላቀለበትን "ሰበካህንም "ተረዳሁ::

ከባድ ፖለቲካኛ ነህ:: ወንድሜ ሆይ እርግጥ ነው:: ኤርትራን በደንብ የማውቃት አገሬ ነች:: አንተ ተወለድኩባት የምትለው አታውቃትም:: ውኃ ለሰው ልጅ አስፈላጊ ነው:: የት ምንጮች እንዳሉና እንደሚገኙ አውቃለሁ::

ኤርትራውስጥ በአልጌናና ናቅፋ መሐከል ታስታውስ እንደሆነ ሻቢያና ጀበኃ ጦርነት ላንዴና ለመጨረሻ ጊዜ ያደረጉበት ቦታ:: እዚያ የጋዝ ሽታው አያስኬድህም ሌሊትም አያስተኛህም እውነት ነው የምነግርህ ያንን ቦታ ይልቅስ በደንብ ይፈተሽ ለኤርትራ ኤኮኖሚ ይረዳል::

ወርቅ የት እንደሚገኝ ደግሞ አልነግርህም:: የጃፓን ካምፓኒ ሰርቶ ሻቢያ ያቃጠለው ቦታ ብቻ እንዳይደለ አስቡ::

እስከዚህ ለኤርትራም አስብላታለሁ በሚገባ ያንን የትጥቅ ትግል እንዳይኖር በሰላማዊ ድርድር ወንድሞቻቺን አብረውን እንዲኖሩና የውስጥ አስተዳደራቸውን ያልምንም ተጽ እኖ እንዲኖሩ ከሚመኙት ኢትዮጵያውያን ወገኖች ህ አንዱ ነኝ::

ታዲያ የናንተ የሻቢያ ጥፋት ምን መሰለህ ለፍታቺሁ ለፍታቺሁ ብዙ ከሄዳቺሁ በኌላ ድንባዣሙን መለሰ ዜናዊን ወደ አፋበት ወይም ናቅፋ ታልሆነም አልጌናና ቅጥልጥሎ ተራራ ድንጋዩ የሰማይ ስባሪ የሚመስለው ውስጥ ወስዳቺሁ ያጠመቃቺሁት ጽበል የአቡነ ፊሊጶስ ይሁን ወይስ የጋንጩሩ መሆኑን ሳታጣሩ የኤርትራ ጥያቄ የቅኝ ግዛት ጥያቄ ነው ብሎ መጽሐፍ ጽፎ በቃ ዋናው አምባሳደር ዘ ሻቢያ አድርጋቺሁት ለቃቺሁብን ይኸው ዛሬ ምን እያደረገ እንደሚገኝ ልብህ ይፈርደዋል::

ሻቢያ ሞኙ (ሰው አማኙ) ያንን ሁሉ እድል ከመስጠቱም አልፎ እንደገና መለሰ ድንበር ሣያካልላቺሁ እንኳን ሂዱ ብሏቺሁ ጉድ ሠራቺሁ እስካሁን ከዕድገታቺሁ ተጓደላቺሁ ወደድክም ጠላኸውም የህዝብ ልጆች በ2ቱም በኩል አለቁ:: ለምን?

መርሃዊ ጥቁር በጥቁር ቀርቶ በአለም ላይ የሚገኙ የሰው ልጆችን ሰላምና መልካም ኑሮ ይመኝላቸዋል በሚል ነው የጻፍኩልህ የልቤን:: በሚገባ ምንጊዜም ኢትዮጵያ በስፍርዋ ትኖራለች:: ነበረ አለቺም ለወደፊትም ትቀጥላላለች:: የሰው ልጅ ህይወት በንምድር ላይ እስካለ ድረስ::

መስማማት አለብን የመለሰ ዜናዊ ህወኃትና ወያኔ ገለመሌዎቻቸው ከነሰንኮፋቸው መሄድ አለባቸው ከዚያ በኌላ ኤርትራ ከቀሩት ቤተሰቦቿ ጋራ በእኩልነት ላይ በተመሠረተ መንገድና አብሮ መኖር በአለም ዙሪ በሚለውም መሰረት ተባብረን አብረን እኖራለን በሚል ምንጊዜም ሃሣቤ ነው::

ወንድም መርሐዊ! እኔ የሻቢያ ተማራኪ አልነበርኩም:: ሁላቺንም እኩል እድሜና ብርታት ያለን ነበርን በወቅቱ:: ማንም ተማራኪ ማንም ማራኪ አልነበረም:: ደርግ አይደለም የኢትዮጵያ ሰራዊት ነው እዚያ የነበሩት:: ነገር ግን ነጋዴ ጀኔራሎች ህዝብን አበሳጭ ሁኔታን በማድረጋቸው ህዝቡ መሮት ወዳሻቢያ ገባና ተዓምር ተፈጠረ እንጂ እያንዳንዱ ኤርትራዊ ኢትዮጵያ እናት አገሩን ይወዳታል:: ስብከት እንዳታስመስልብኝ እኛ አንድ ህዝብ ነን::

የራስህ ምርጫ ነው እኔ እንደዚያ ነው ምንጊዜም የማስበው አርኬ::

ጉራ አልወድም ነገር ግን ሁለቱ ህዝቦች ባንድ ላይ ቢኖሩ የበለጠ ይከብራሉ ይሻሻላሉ:: አባይን ግማሹን ወስደን አገራቺንን እናለማታለን:: አረንጓዴዋ ደሴት ትባላለቺ ብዙ ነገሮች አሉ የባቡሩ ኃዲድ ከፌርፌር እስከ ቃሩራ ይዘረጋል ንግዱና ሃብቱ ላይጣል ይሆናል ከሆታ በስተቀር ለቅሶ በዚያ አካባቢ አይኖርም አኩሪ ባህላቺንን እምነቶቻቺንን እንጠቀምባቸዋለን:: ከዚያ የበለጠ ለሰው ልጅ ምንድነው አስፈላጊው ንገረኝ እስቲ?

አሁንም ላናድህ እንደዚያ ስትናደዱ አንዳንዴ ደስ ይለኛል:: አገር መውደዳቺሁን ደግሞ ሳላደንቀው አላልፍም::

*ቀይ ባህር ዳር ድንበራቺን ነው* አፋር ቤተሰቦቼ ናቸው በይሉል ያሉት*

አክባሪህ

ወርቅሰው1
ከ(ሰሐሊን)

ማስተካከያ!

መርሃዊ የኤርትራን ታሪክ ጥሩ አድርጌ ለወደፊቱ እነግርኃለሁ ወጣት ትመስለኛለህ የነገሩህን ሰምተህ ስለላክልኝ ሳላመስወግንህ አላልፍም እንደምትለው ሳይሆን ኤርትራን ያስተዳድሩ የነበሩት ወልቃይቶ ጠገዴዎቹ ሰሜን አትርማጭሆዎች ነበሩ:: ሃማሴን የመጣው ከዚያ ነው ለዚያም ነው ጦረኛ እየሆኑ እስከዛሬ እያሸገሩ ያሉት:: ኃይለኞች ናቸው ጠያይሞች የሰሜኗ ኮኮቦች የኢትዮጵያ ኮረዳዎቹን ተመልከታቸው እስቲ ጎንደሬዎቹን አይመስሉህም?




መራሀዊ wrote:ወርቅሰው.....ያንተ ለቅሶ ሁልጊዜ ተደጋጋሚ በጣም ከብዙሀኑ የኢትዮጵያ አስተሳሰብ የተለየ....መንግስቱ በአሁኑ ሰአት እንደአንተ አይነት አስተሳሰብ የለውም እንኳን አንት....ነበር,ናቸው እያልክ እንደአፈ ታሪክ ወሬ ታበዛለህ

ምናልባት በደርግ ጊዜያት ከሚማረኩት ምርከኞች አንዱ አንተ ሳትሆን አትቀርም የመጀመርያ የደርግ ሰራዊቶች አብዛኛዎቹ ወደ ሱዳን ከዚያም ወደ ተለያየ የተሻገሩ ናቸው...እና አንተም ፍቅር ልብህ ውስጥ የሰረጸ ይመስል ""ቀይ ባህር ዳር ድንበራችን ነው እያልክ ""ትፎክራለህ ማን ሊሰማህ ነበሩ ናቸው እያልክ ለቅሶ ታበዛለህ ማን አብሮህ ሊያንጎረጉር... አይደለም የውጪ የውስጣዊ የሀገርህን እና የወገንህን ጉዳይ ልትፈታ የማትችል በሩቁ ሆነህ በናፍቆት የምትቃጠል አንተ ድሮ የምታውቃት ኢትዮጵያ መስላህ እንዳይመስልህ....የማንም ---- የወገንህን ደም በውስኪ ብርጭቆ ነው የሚጠጣው ያለው ስለዚህ ከወቅታዊ ጉዳይ ጋር አስተሳሰብህ ቢሄድ ይሻላል...

ለማንኛውም ትንሽ ይህችን ጽሁፍ እንድታነባት ...

History of Eritrea

Eritrea is one of the newest and most promising nations in Africa -- and containts remnants of some of its oldest civilizations. One of the earliest known references to Eritrea is from Aeschylus (Fragment 67) in which he refers to the "Mare Erythreum" (Red Sea) as "the lake that is the jewel of Ethiopia." Eritrea recently fought and won one of the longest wars in the world. After thirty years of bitter strugle, Eritrea achieve total independence and the right to self-determination. The Eritrean people acheived their goals in 1991 in a stunning defeat of the occupying Ethiopian forces which also helped liberate Ethiopia from the Soviet-backed Dergue (Menguistu Hailemariam) regime.

Early History

Between 1000 and 400 BC, a semitic group of people known as the Sabeans crossed the Red Sea into the region known as present Eritrea, and intermingled with the Hamitic inhabitants who had migrated from the northern Sudan. The region was then controlled by various foreign invaders such as the Axumite kingdom, the Funji Sultans of Sudan, the Egyptians, the Portugese and the Turks. Each of these foreign occupiers had a distinct impact on the development of present day Eritrea as a nation and in the formation of an Eritrean identity.

Colonisation; ITALY

None, however, was quite as significant as the Italian colonial period from 1880 - 1941. This was the era during which Eritrea emerged as a distinct society and territory. In the late 1880's Italy purchased the port of Assab from a commercial company that was administering it. Encouraged by the British, who were then attempting to contain France's colonial asspirations in the Horn, Italy proceeded to colonize the region. Italy moved to transform Eritrea, with its access to sea and agricultural potential, into a permanent colony. The king of Italy issued a decree that formally established Eritrea on 1 January 1890. Eritrea was defined as a Nation State, and a colony of Italy. Italian immigration began at the turn of the century. At the twilight of of the Italian colonial era (late 1930s) about 70,000 Italians had settled in Eritrea. Italian agricultural policy for Eritrea was designed to primarily benefit the settlement population and to sustain Italian exports to Europe and East Africa. The development of a market- based economy required that the Italians upgrade Eritrea's infrastructure. The extensive communications and transportation facilities that were established were among the best in Africa during this era. The Italians built railway lines between Asmara and Keren and Agordat. The port of Massawa was linked by rail to the interior. All-weather roads were constructed through the mountains of Eritrea and the lowlands. Two modern airports were built. An export-based industrial sector was created and Eritrea forged new links with the international economy. National Identity and, gradually, a national consciousness developed during this era. People from diverse economic, ethnic and religious backgrounds were structurally linked within the colonial borders. Their experiences differed sharply from those of their neighbors in Ethiopia. Ethiopia remained dominated by a feudal economic system managed by imperial rule. By the 1940s, Eritrea had evolved a substantial working class as well as a distinct urban- based intelligentsia. Neverthless Italian colonial rule was not benign. The Italian administration reflected the views and aspirations of a fascist government. Eritrea's people were seen as little more than a source of cheap labour to fuel the aims of Rome. Eritreans played only subsidiary roles in their country's economic and political development.


Colonialism; GREAT BRITAIN

With the defeat of Italy in 1941, the great powers (France, Soviet Union, UK and the US) decided that Great Britain would then govern Eritrea as a protectorate. The British Military Administration (BMA) ruled Eritrea as "Occupied Enemy Territory." The Eritrean people viewed the British as a welcome respite from Italian fascist rule. Nonethless, Eritrean society was by then experiencing the first stirrings of the desire for self determination. Peasant resistance had increased during the final years of Italian governance. The economic hardships suffered because of the dominance of foreign agendas began to make Eritreans conscious of the need to chart their own economic future. Until this period, Ethiopian involvement in Eritrea was quite limited. From the turn of the century through the onset of British military rule, Eritrea and Ethiopia moved on separate economic and political tracks. Eritrea developed a colonial-based market economy while Ethiopia maintained feudalism. By the 1940's, however, Ethiopian designs on Eritrea clearly emerged. The newly-reinstated Emperor of Ethiopia began his effort to gain influence and control over Eritrea. Ethiopia employed three primary tactics to acheive its goal of increasing influence and domination. These were interference in the religious affairs of Eritrea, manipulation of political parties and organizations, and terrorism. The British responce to Ethiopia's increasingly interventionist stance was largely ineffectual. They were unable to counter the growing disruption generated from Addis Ababa.

UN Decides Eritrea's Fate

The end of World War II resulted in UN oversight of Eritrea. By this time the BMA was finding it difficult to govern Eritrea. Ethiopia was staking a claim through intervention and diplomatic efforts. The US, which had maintained a presence in British-administered Eritrea, was showing increasing interest in obtaining a strategic presence on the Red Sea coast. The discussions that were to define Eritrea's future for the coming forty years began in April 1949 in New York. Various proposals - partition, annexation and independence - were debated. According to the British, 75 percent of the population suported Independence. On 2 December 1950, the UN passed a resolution that formally federated Eritrea to Ethiopia. In September 1952, the agreement was put into practice and Ethiopians replaced the British. The international decision regarding the fate of Eritrea had little to do with the aspirations of the Eritrean people themselves.

Liberation Struggle: 1961-1991

Although there was organized resistance throughout the British Military Administration and federation with Ethiopia, the first act of armed resistance by Eritreans against Ethiopian rule was September 1, 1961. The event became a pretext for total annexation by Ethiopia on November 14, 1962. Scattered resistance groups formed links with pro-independence movements outside the country, and the first organized military front, the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) was formed. By 1965 the ELF had about 1,000 fighters in the field.

In an effort to deal with the cultural and geographic challenges of waging a national campaign for liberation, the ELF established semi-autonomous zones. This led eventually to "balkanization" of the resistance movement into Muslim and Christian factions, with some key defections over to the Ethiopian side. Following a concerted attack on the ELF by the Ethiopians, there were calls for unity within the liberation movement, matched by more defections and splinter movements. During this same period (late 1960s and early 1970s) Emperor Haile Selassie was also losing his grip on internal affairs throughout Ethiopia. Large numbers of Christian highlanders joined the ELF, and a second military force, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) was formed. By 1976 the ELF and EPLF had a combined force of 20,000, and were making signficant advances in controlling the rural and less-populated regions of the country.

The EPLF quickly became the more powerful of the two forces, and was more effective when meeting Ethiopian troops. In 1980, angered by an attack in which the ELF left their flanks exposed, the EPLF drove their rivals from the field, and faced the enemy alone for the remainder of the war.
Despite increased Soviet support for the Dergue (Menguistu Hailemariam) regime, amounting to more than $16 billion, the EPLF succeeded in meeting its better-equipped enemy head-on in a series of eight offenses, where the odds favored the Ethiopians by 10:1 in most cases. Using a strategy of strategic retreats and lightning counter-attacks, the EPLF was able to re-capture 90% of Eritreans from a demoralized Ethiopian army by 1990.

The infrastructure created for support of EPLF troops and their civilian charges was just as significant in bringing about eventual liberation as was the military skill and bravery of the outnumbered soldiers. The EPLF established networks of underground hospitals, factories, schools, and libraries for the benefit of the people in liberated zones. Literacy and public health campaigns significantly improved the daily lives of peasant farmers, despite the war being fought on all sides. The EPLF insituted innovative civil administration, legal and social codes that transformed the traditional and colonial structures that preceded them. Marriage, property and inheritance customs were re-vamped to provide equality for historically oppressed Eritrean women. More than 30% of the EPLF's combatants were women, and their contribution was too significant for the society to willingly turn its back, and return to the old ways.


The Birth of a Nation

The 24th of May 1993, brought in the dawn of a new era for the Eritrean people. Having won the right to define their own future, they voted for Independence in a referendum held from the 23rd-25th of April 1993. On the 27th of April 1993, the Independent Eritrean Referendum Commission, the United Nations Observer Mission for the Eritrean Referendum (UNOVER), the OAU, the Arab League, the Non - Aligned Movement, the National Citizens Monitoring Group and numerous individual observers were unanimous in their conclusion, that the referendum had been unequivocally free and fair. In the words of the then Provisional Government of Eritrea (PGE) Secretary General; Issaias Afwerki; the referendum was " a delightful and sacrosanct historical conclusion to the choice of the Eritrean people. And although it has been decided that formal independence will be declared on 24 May 1993, Eritrea is a soverign country as of today." (27 April 1993). The Independence of Eritrea and its territorial sovereignity was immediately recognised by the world.

ERITREA: CHARACTERISTICS

The people The people of Eritrea, are known as Eritreans. They are a resilient group of people who thrive on hope and a deep tradition of comradeship among each other. The fact that most of the population spent many years in Diaspora or on the war front, has helped in establishing a deep bond between them that trancends mere ethnic or religious divisions.

POPULATION: 3,467,087 (July 1993 est.)
GROWTH RATE: 3.46% (1993 est.)
ETHNIC GROUPS: Bilen, Nara, Afar, Tigre, Kunama, Hadareb, Saho, Rashaida, Tigrinya
RELIGIONS: Christianity, Islam, Animist

Geography Today; Eritrea occupies a strategic position along the worlds busiest shipping lanes and the Middl East oil fields, and is also an oasis of stability in the volaitaile regions of the Horn of Africa. Eritrea retained its entire coast line along the Red Sea, upon its independence on 27 April 1993; leaving Ethiopia landlocked.

LOCATION: Horn of Africa; bordered to the North and West by Sudan; South by Ethiopia; South-East by Djibouti and to the North -East by the Red Sea.

AREA SIZE: Total land area is 121,320 km sq. Eritrea is slightly larger than either England or Pennsylvania.

LAND BOUNDARIES: Total 1,630 km. Boundaries with neighbouring countries is 113 km with Djibouti; 912 km with Ethiopia and 605 km with the Sudan.

COAST LINE: Coast line by the Red Sea is 1,151 km; together with the Dahlack Archipelagos is 2,234 km.

MARITIME CLAIMS: Teritorial claims on the Red Sea; 12 nautical miles.

DATELINE: A POLITICAL HISTORY
1889- Eritrea defined as a Nation State/ colonised by Italy.
1941- World War II/ Italy defeated in Africa/ Eritrea is now governed by the British.
1952- Eritrea federated as an autonomous state with Ethiopia.
1961- The beginning of the Independence war by the ELF (the Eritrean Liberation Front).
1962- Ethiopia annexes Eritrea as it's 14th province.
1970- EPLF (Eritrean People's Liberation Front) formed.
1976-8 Liberation movements take control over most of the towns and countryside.
1991- Eritrea liberated from Ethiopia by the EPLF. Transitional govt. set up with Secretary - General of the EPLF, Issaias Afwerki as leader.
1993- UN sponsored referendum for Independence of Eritrea held on APRIL 23rd - 25th. 99% of the votes cast are pro Independence. On April 27th Eritrea becomes an Independent and recognised nation. MAY 24 is proclaimed National Day in Eritrea.

መርሀዊ
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